CWE-494 下载代码缺少完整性检查

Download of Code Without Integrity Check

结构: Simple

Abstraction: Base

状态: Draft

被利用可能性: Medium


The product downloads source code or an executable from a remote location and executes the code without sufficiently verifying the origin and integrity of the code.


An attacker can execute malicious code by compromising the host server, performing DNS spoofing, or modifying the code in transit.


  • cwe_Nature: ChildOf cwe_CWE_ID: 669 cwe_View_ID: 1000 cwe_Ordinal: Primary

  • cwe_Nature: ChildOf cwe_CWE_ID: 669 cwe_View_ID: 1003 cwe_Ordinal: Primary

  • cwe_Nature: PeerOf cwe_CWE_ID: 79 cwe_View_ID: 1000


Language: {'cwe_Class': 'Language-Independent', 'cwe_Prevalence': 'Undetermined'}


范围 影响 注释
['Integrity', 'Availability', 'Confidentiality', 'Other'] ['Execute Unauthorized Code or Commands', 'Alter Execution Logic', 'Other'] Executing untrusted code could compromise the control flow of the program. The untrusted code could execute attacker-controlled commands, read or modify sensitive resources, or prevent the software from functioning correctly for legitimate users.


DM-7.4 Manual Analysis

This weakness can be detected using tools and techniques that require manual (human) analysis, such as penetration testing, threat modeling, and interactive tools that allow the tester to record and modify an active session.

Specifically, manual static analysis is typically required to find the behavior that triggers the download of code, and to determine whether integrity-checking methods are in use.

These may be more effective than strictly automated techniques. This is especially the case with weaknesses that are related to design and business rules.

DM-11 Black Box

Use monitoring tools that examine the software's process as it interacts with the operating system and the network. This technique is useful in cases when source code is unavailable, if the software was not developed by you, or if you want to verify that the build phase did not introduce any new weaknesses. Examples include debuggers that directly attach to the running process; system-call tracing utilities such as truss (Solaris) and strace (Linux); system activity monitors such as FileMon, RegMon, Process Monitor, and other Sysinternals utilities (Windows); and sniffers and protocol analyzers that monitor network traffic.

Attach the monitor to the process and also sniff the network connection. Trigger features related to product updates or plugin installation, which is likely to force a code download. Monitor when files are downloaded and separately executed, or if they are otherwise read back into the process. Look for evidence of cryptographic library calls that use integrity checking.


MIT-42 Implementation


Perform proper forward and reverse DNS lookups to detect DNS spoofing.

['Architecture and Design', 'Operation']


Encrypt the code with a reliable encryption scheme before transmitting. This will only be a partial solution, since it will not detect DNS spoofing and it will not prevent your code from being modified on the hosting site.

MIT-4 Architecture and Design

策略: Libraries or Frameworks

Use a vetted library or framework that does not allow this weakness to occur or provides constructs that make this weakness easier to avoid. Speficially, it may be helpful to use tools or frameworks to perform integrity checking on the transmitted code.

MIT-17 ['Architecture and Design', 'Operation']

策略: Environment Hardening

Run your code using the lowest privileges that are required to accomplish the necessary tasks [REF-76]. If possible, create isolated accounts with limited privileges that are only used for a single task. That way, a successful attack will not immediately give the attacker access to the rest of the software or its environment. For example, database applications rarely need to run as the database administrator, especially in day-to-day operations.

MIT-22 ['Architecture and Design', 'Operation']

策略: Sandbox or Jail

Run the code in a "jail" or similar sandbox environment that enforces strict boundaries between the process and the operating system. This may effectively restrict which files can be accessed in a particular directory or which commands can be executed by the software. OS-level examples include the Unix chroot jail, AppArmor, and SELinux. In general, managed code may provide some protection. For example, in the Java SecurityManager allows the software to specify restrictions on file operations. This may not be a feasible solution, and it only limits the impact to the operating system; the rest of the application may still be subject to compromise. Be careful to avoid CWE-243 and other weaknesses related to jails.


This example loads an external class from a local subdirectory.

bad Java

URL[] classURLs= new URL[]{
new URL("file:subdir/")
URLClassLoader loader = new URLClassLoader(classURLs);
Class loadedClass = Class.forName("loadMe", true, loader);

This code does not ensure that the class loaded is the intended one, for example by verifying the class's checksum. An attacker may be able to modify the class file to execute malicious code.

This code includes an external script to get database credentials, then authenticates a user against the database, allowing access to the application.

bad PHP

//assume the password is already encrypted, avoiding CWE-312

function authenticate($username,$password){


//dbInfo.php makes $dbhost, $dbuser, $dbpass, $dbname available
mysql_connect($dbhost, $dbuser, $dbpass) or die ('Error connecting to mysql');
$query = 'Select * from users where username='.$username.' And password='.$password;
$result = mysql_query($query);

if(mysql_numrows($result) == 1){
return true;
return false;


This code does not verify that the external domain accessed is the intended one. An attacker may somehow cause the external domain name to resolve to an attack server, which would provide the information for a false database. The attacker may then steal the usernames and encrypted passwords from real user login attempts, or simply allow himself to access the application without a real user account.

This example is also vulnerable to a Man in the Middle (CWE-300) attack.


标识 说明 链接
CVE-2008-3438 OS does not verify authenticity of its own updates.
CVE-2008-3324 online poker client does not verify authenticity of its own updates.
CVE-2001-1125 anti-virus product does not verify automatic updates for itself.
CVE-2002-0671 VOIP phone downloads applications from web sites without verifying integrity.



映射的分类名 ImNode ID Fit Mapped Node Name
CLASP Invoking untrusted mobile code
The CERT Oracle Secure Coding Standard for Java (2011) SEC06-J Do not rely on the default automatic signature verification provided by URLClassLoader and java.util.jar
Software Fault Patterns SFP27 Tainted input to environment


  • CAPEC-184
  • CAPEC-185
  • CAPEC-186
  • CAPEC-187
  • CAPEC-533